Articles tagged with: conservation

Conservation of a Plaster Model Horse

on Tuesday, 22 March 2022. Posted in Conservation

Hello! I have just joined the team at CMAS as an object conservator, having spent the last four years working on the Burrell Collection in Glasgow.

In my first three weeks I have had some lovely objects to get stuck into; one of which is a cream painted plaster model horse with a leather and textile collar from the Mere Museum.

The model in situ in a saddlery shop

We think this was a display model for a saddlery, although the records are a bit thin on the ground. It was brought in for conservation with fractures across all four lower legs and pieces of plaster had come away from the hind right leg exposing the iron armature inside. On top of this, the paint surface was flaking in places and is rather uneven, having been touched up and repainted several times.

Both the body of the horse and the base show signs of previous damage and repair, and indeed there are records of the horse having already been conserved twice by CMAS in the last 20 years.

A New Start with a New Placement

on Tuesday, 23 November 2021. Posted in Conservation, History Centre

Hiya! I’m Sejal and I’m a trainee conservator doing my placement with the Wiltshire Conservation and Museum Advisory Service. I’m excited to start my professional work here and I am looking forward to some amazing projects.

A woman with red hair wearing a face covering stands next to a museum cabinet with 4 skulls and two knapped tools
Showing off my last big project; some anatomical skull models for the Durham Museum of Archaeology

My placement is part of my master’s degree in object conservation at Durham University. My background is primarily based in archaeology and I’ve been on several excavations, but I’ve always gravitated more towards lab work than field work. For my undergraduate dissertation, I spent a month in Portugal, helping sort through discarded ceramics from a seventeenth century kiln. It was like trying to put 100 jigsaw puzzles together at once, but you only have about 75% of the pieces.

A table covered with pottery bowls and plates, some mostly incomplete all with fragments taped together
A nearly complete set of 18th century tablewares from a kiln waste site in Portugal

I’m originally from the United States and have spent the last four years up north for my studies, so I haven’t spent much time in the southwest of the UK. So, I’m very excited to explore the region and the rich prehistory and history it holds. I also hope to visit a lot of local museums and work with a variety of institutions whilst I’m here.

Conservation of the Radstock Jubilee Drum

on Thursday, 02 September 2021. Posted in Conservation, History Centre, Museums

4 images of side-view of a colourful but tatty drum
Photo 1: Radstock Jubilee Drum Before Treatment

The Conservation and Museums Advisory Service (CMAS) is based at the Wiltshire and Swindon History Centre in Chippenham. We preserve the Wiltshire and Swindon Archives and provide support to museums, heritage organisations and individuals to care for and conserve historic collections and meet professional standards.

Close-up of side of drum with red, black and white striped paint on wooden body
Photo 2: Detail of painted surface before treatment

According to the UK’s professional conservation body the Institute of Conservation:

‘The purpose of all conservation is to facilitate the public’s access to and enjoyment of our cultural heritage. It helps us understand ourselves and our future by preserving our past.’

So, when a marching band drum from Radstock Museum recently came into the object conservation studio at CMAS, we had to think about how to preserve the history of the object in the best way.

The drum was from the Radstock Jubilee and much of the original paint had cracked and lifted from the surface. There were already large areas of loss, but the main text on the drum remained. It was not the intention for the drum to be used again, instead the Museum planned to place it on display. In discuss with the Museum it was decided that it would be most ethically appropriate to preserve the remaining paint to show the history and use of the object.

Pest Monitoring to Protect Our Archive Collection

on Tuesday, 30 March 2021. Posted in Archives, Conservation, History Centre

Surprise! - Historic pest found in archive volume by an unsuspecting archivist

We’ve recently reviewed the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programme that we have in place at the history centre so that we can effectively protect the archives from the possibility of any damaging insect pests.

IPM is a multi-faceted approach to pest management and our program is used alongside a number of other preventative measures such as good cleaning and housekeeping routines, thoroughly checking new accessions for any hitchhiking pests before they are put into the strong rooms and maintaining a stable environment within the strong rooms so that pests do not feel at home. This way we can continue to protect our archives into the future.

Insects can cause a real problem for historic collections, which can be tasty treats for them to feast on, causing irreversible damage and loss of information.

It is really important to protect the archives against possible pest infestations. A small number can quickly increase to become a big problem if left unchecked and cause substantial damage to a collection.

During the pandemic some collections such as The National Trust have reported increased pest activity due to the reduction in footfall and reduced monitoring and cleaning of spaces, leaving areas undisturbed for pests to thrive. With such large numbers of documents held in repositories such as WSHC it is impossible to frequently check all items individually, so programmes to monitor and reduce numbers are put in place.

We have set up ‘blunder traps’ in the History Centre, strategically located around the strong rooms and other areas of the building, and by frequently monitoring them we are able to get a picture of any pests present and which areas they are visiting.

The traps we use do not control pest infestations they simply allow us to monitor levels of pests. If we find a pattern of large numbers of any particular archive pest, we can then look into dealing with any problems and target them specifically.

Conserving a photograph album in-situ

on Tuesday, 15 December 2020. Posted in Conservation, History Centre

An intriguing project that came across my work-bench for conservation, was a lovely green album with old photographs and postcards, dating back to late 1800s and early 1900s, from Bath Record Office. The album is personalised with annotations, and has some damage from wear and tear over the years.

Turning the pages of the album was quite fascinating, and amongst the many photographs were a portrait of a dog, and a postcard of a soldier with a sweet message saying ‘To The Lass that Loves a Soldier.. From The Soldier (?) .. (at least he hopes so)’.

'Mr Begbie’s Dog’ and a message from a soldier.

Upon assessing the album, it was clear that the album required conservation work, which was divided into two stages; the repair of tears, and securing pages that had become loose.

Pages throughout the album were in need of repair , with tears and areas of loss around the photo corners, and damage around the edge of pages.

The pages in the album were gathered into six sections – one section had become detached from the album and others were held in place with staples. The whole text block had become detached from the binding.

Many albums tell a narrative through the photographs selected, the order in which they are placed, and in the personal touches such as handwritten annotations. We did not want the conservation treatment to affect the story told by the original layout, intention or handwritten notes. Before starting any work, we created a detailed record of the layout to check that the original format had been maintained.

Several treatment options were considered for the album, and it was decided that we would clean and rebind the original pages to re-create the photograph album, preserving the original format and annotations in situ.

This meant that the tears around the photographs would be repaired and conserved, and that the pages would be sewn together and attached to the cover, giving life to the album once again so it could be used by researchers.

X-radiography in the conservation lab

on Monday, 16 March 2020. Posted in Conservation, History Centre

X-radiography in the conservation lab

I have been working as a Conservation Assistant at the WSHC for nearly a year, and a large part of my role involves administration and financial processing. However, one of the more interesting and slightly unusual aspects of the job is the hands-on work I get to do as part of the Conservation and Museums Advisory Service here at the centre, and I have recently undertaken training to use the x-ray machine which we have in the lab. This is a complex process which requires stringent processes, records and maintenance checks to ensure the machine is used safely and functioning correctly. Regular use of the equipment is key to building experience and a ‘feel’ for the items being investigated and how to get the strongest images.

How it works

Inside the x-ray machine is an x-ray tube. A heated filament called a cathode sits inside the tube and accelerates high energy electrons at a metal target anode, usually made of tungsten, as the electrons strike the anode they interact with the atoms. In this process, which is called Bremsstrahlung (braking radiation), the electrons lose much of their energy and a photon x-ray is produced. X-rays are electromagnetic radiation of a short wavelength and high frequency invisible to the human eye, but possible to record on photosensitive film, known as x-radiographs.

Left: X-ray machine Right: Objects placed on a cassette in the middle of x-ray machine

The object to be x-rayed is placed on top of a cassette which holds the photosensitive film. On exposure the x-rays will penetrate through the object leaving the image captured on the film. The x-rays are partially absorbed, “attenuated”, by the denser materials such as bone or metal and pass more easily through soft material such as soil or skin. Therefore, the strength of the x-ray (KV) and the length of time the object is exposed for is adjusted for the type of material, size and condition of the item.

Examples of photographic film showing lighter areas where the object has a higher density, and darker areas where the x-rays have penetrated material which is less dense.

The photographic films then require a wet, chemical process similar to that used for black and white photographic film with a developer solution to reveal the image, followed by a fixer to secure the image and a wash to remove all chemical residues. This process takes around an hour and half and must be carried out in the dark room, with only red light, which can be a little disorientating at first!

Digital or computed x-radiography is well established and allows greater speed in reviewing and manipulating images. CMAS are actively working to move to digital, so watch this space!

How X-radiographs are used in conservation

X-radiography produces images on a 1:1 scale which allow the conservators to investigate the structure, manufacture or identity of an object. Small dark bubbles can indicate casting processes, the distinctive herringbone structure of pattern welding or wave formations of damascening are often clearly visible in x-rays, even when the surface of a blade is severely deformed.

Moreover, x-rays pass more easily through deteriorated materials and voids, these areas will appear darker grey or black compared to the brighter white of more stable areas. This can show up pitting, cracks and breaks assisting in the accurate assessment of the condition of items and their longer-term conservation requirements.

X-radiography is a non-destructive way of retrieving and revealing information and so it is commonly used in the primary stages of investigation.

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