Go to any town, whether it’s in Wiltshire or elsewhere, and look at its historic houses. We all notice the main features – the type of door, its windows, what material the main elevation is faced with etc, but how many of you have noticed the strange semi-circular little recess beside the front door? In the past these were as part of everyday life as an umbrella.
Throughout history up until as recently as 1900 England’s roads could be an impassable river of mud in the winter and in any period of wet weather (Hindle, Medieval Roads, Shire Anthology). Travel between towns could be arduous in bad weather, and even in towns paving could be non-existent or minimal. 15th century walkers from Kellaways, near Chippenham could take advantage of Maud Heath’s causeway and walk dry-shod to market with their basket of eggs, but these philanthropic endeavours must have been few and far between. Of course, there was sporadic paving and cobbles in towns such as Bath in the 18th century, but not in every town.
In the past long, dragging garments could be kept out of the mud using pattens outdoors. Effluent, both animal and human, was dumped freely in the street or open sewers. Salisbury once had a network of these open sewers that flowed down the main streets until the watercourses were covered over. Pattens were metal or wooden overshoes or clogs that would not have looked out of place besides 70s platform shoes. They could be slip-ons or could be tied in place with cloth bands and raised indoor shoes, which were thin-soled and expensive, above the sludge level.
By the 18th century we start to see boot-scrapers at the entrances to any building to keep down the level of mess, which must have been a constant headache for any housekeeper. These came in three main forms: the free-standing type embedded in the ground next to a door; portable scrapers, some with brushes, which are still available today and used on muddy wellies; and built-in boot-scrapers which were part of the design of a building. Teddington House in Warminster is dated c1700 and has not one but two arched recesses on either side of the door, once with iron bands across. These are the type that remain, sometimes without their iron bands. Some decay away and lose their decorative features, such as a chamfered surround. Sometimes they are filled in entirely.
The need for boot scrapers in towns pretty much disappeared with the introduction of tarmac for roads and pavements by Edgar Hooley in 1902. He was walking in Denby, Derbyshire when he noticed a patch of smooth road. He later found out that a barrel of tar had overturned and had been covered up with slag from a nearby furnace and modern road surfacing was born.
Today these once-vital structures have fallen into disrepair and are probably hardly noticed. One near me has been turned into a fairy house complete with tiny bits of furniture and figures so that children on their way to the nearby school can appreciate it. It would be interesting to see the cut-off date for these scrapers in dated buildings, as I am guessing they likely stopped abruptly in 1902. If anyone has any thoughts on this under-researched subject, then let me know.
Buildings Recorder, WBR
During lockdown the Wiltshire & Swindon History Centre has worked to bring our collections to you in as many different ways as possible. This difficult period has emphasised the importance of having a strong digital presence and we are continuing our endeavours to help everyone gain better access to our county’s wonderful heritage resources.
One method of doing this is increasing our capacity on the Know Your Place website. This project, which began in Bristol and later expanded across the south west of England, layers historic maps of the region and provides interactive layers of historic data, archival collections and community input. This enables the public to compare and contrast contemporary OS maps with historic maps, such as tithe and estate maps, which is great when studying the development of areas and communities. But not only this, it pinpoints (geotags) heritage collections of all shapes and sizes to their relevant locations on the maps – these are known as information layers. Watch this short video to get an idea of why you might use Know Your Place and the ethos behind this progressive project, which is always looking to add documents and detail for public consumption.
Here at the Wiltshire & Swindon History Centre we have been working hard during lockdown to improve our part of the site, KYP Wiltshire, by creating more layers to assist with local history research across the county. A huge amount of work has been done during the last 6 months, by multiple members of staff, to recreate the tithe awards layer. Some of you may have noticed this layer before, or even used it in the past, but not every tithe award was uploaded, and some were found to be faulty. The layer is now up and running, with every tithe award (over 350 T symbols as below) accessible on the site.
For detailed information on tithes, we recommend browsing The National Archives’ handy research guide, but here’s some brief information on how are they can benefit local history research. In 1836 the Tithe Commutation Act was passed, which put an end to tithes being paid in kind to the church (as was often the case previously). Tithes (one tenth of agricultural produce) were now a monetary tax to be paid to the church, but in order to ascertain who would have to pay what, a nationwide survey was taken, with the whole country being mapped (tithe maps). Alongside the maps, the tithe awards (part of a larger document called the tithe apportionments) were produced, which detailed landowners and occupiers of the land.
Plot numbers, listed alongside names, link the award to the map, and show how much each plot of land is due to pay in tithes. Any historic document that lists names in relation to a place is going to be useful for family historians. The tithe award will place a family in a specific location, give an idea of how wealthy (or not) they were, e.g. if they are listed as a landowner that would infer wealth, and they sometimes throw unexpected names into the mix. For example, their relatives may be living nearby and would thus be recorded in the same document. In terms of local and social history, tithes give us a great sense of how the land was being used at a certain point in time, and by whom.
We thought it might be of interest to describe exactly what’s gone into making this data available. Our fantastic volunteers from the Wiltshire Family History Society had previously transcribed the documents in our search room and created a mammoth Microsoft Word document, so this needed to be split up into single documents for each parish. We then needed to convert every document into a PDF (the preferred file format for Know Your Place). Finally, we had to get easting and northing grid references for every individual parish, which proved very time consuming and required some serious local knowledge from various members of staff. This enabled the team in Bristol to upload the tithe awards very accurately over each parish church, or otherwise in the centre of the town, village or hamlet.
To activate the tithe award layer and find the data, follow these simple steps:
Thanks to the interactive nature of the website, you can view the award data in conjunction with any of the historic maps available, or indeed the present-day OS. To change the map, simply click on ‘basemaps’ on the legend to the right of the screen and choose whichever map you’re interested in, though in this instance you may wish to view the tithe award data in conjunction with the tithe map, which can be found at the very bottom of the ‘basemaps’ section. You can also bring a second map into the equation, by clicking ‘comparison map’ at the top of the legend, choosing your map and then using the drag and slide function across the main screen.
There is also a spy glass function, on which you can change the transparency to examine change in a precise spot on the map – this can be used by clicking the small square towards the top right of the page and then the slider beneath it manipulates the levels of transparency. This may all seem a bit fiddly to begin with, but you soon get used to it.
The drag & slide, together with the spy glass function, is a valuable tool to local and house historians. Area development is easy to examine, as is property history. For large or very old properties, it is often possible to see boundary changes over time, as well as structural changes or additions, such as extensions to properties.
It is well worth exploring the webpage further, such as the Historic Environment Record section of the information layer which includes monuments and listed buildings – each item in the list can be accessed in the same way as the Tithe Award data.
It has come to our attention that certain tithe maps have enlarged scale drawings of town or village centres on the physical document, but due to the nature of the digitally stitched together maps, these could not be included on the tithe map on Know Your Place. However, we are now in the process of creating image files of these sections of maps, that will be included as data points in due course, which will be accessed in the same way as the tithe award data.
As I mentioned earlier, this project welcomes community input. This is done through the ‘community layer’ which is automatically active each time you open the webpage (the green dots all over the screen). So, if you have a local monument, church, school or an old photograph of your ancestor’s home, you can take the picture, add some information, and add it to the layer. This can be done by clicking the pencil like symbol on the far right of the screen, then clicking directly on the relevant location and then following the instructions from there.
We’ve been helping get the community layer started by adding some examples from our History Centre collections. You will find images of schools and churches. There’s also the results of the Public Art Project, a fine array of images of public art in the county. If you spot any gaps, why not take a photo and add it to the community layer yourself?
Other organisations have been adding to this layer, Chippenham and Salisbury Museums, the Swindon Heritage Action Zone project to name just a few, plus members of the public and local history groups.
So why not take a look and digitally explore Wiltshire, both past and present. Check to see if you can spot your house on the 1st edition OS map or see if you can find any family members’ names in the tithe award data, but be warned – you may spend more time than you intend when you get ‘lost in the map’!
Finally, keep an eye out on our social media announcements of more historic documents being added to the information layers and feel free to contact us with any questions or concerns. You can find our KYP centred Facebook page @KYPWilts.
Since 1994 I have organised an annual village reunion in Horningsham, attended by residents past and present. Each year has a theme and an accompanying display, using material lent to me by the people who attend. In 2008 I was lucky enough to be given a photograph taken in 1947 showing all the pupils, teachers and those employed to look after the school. I was also fortunate enough to be put in touch with a lady living in Warminster who was a pupil there. Along with seven friends, she was able to give me a lot of help and they all came to the reunion. Here are some memories of Elizabeth Fosbroke-Hobbes and Vivienne Bateman-Champain (maiden names).
The Royal School for daughters of officers of the army was founded in 1864 at Lansdown on the outskirts of Bath. The school's mission was to provide practical and religious education for the daughters of army officers who might otherwise be unable to afford it. In 1939 the school was warned that it might be requisitioned, and in early September the Admiralty's Hydrographic Department took over the Lansdown premises. Fortunately, Lord Bath had heard that the school was looking for a temporary home and offered them Longleat. On 29th September, the pupils boarded a train to Frome, not knowing that it would be eight years before they returned to Bath.
Elizabeth takes up the story: “The new girls arrived at Frome station. Those of us who were aged 14 or over had to walk to Longleat. I remember it was a very wet night and we were faced with a five-mile walk! The younger girls and the ‘first night’ suitcases went to Longleat in a bus.”
Many of the girls in the bus did not know what Longleat looked like. As they passed through the stone archway and between the double avenue of trees they fell silent for a moment. There before them stood Longleat, rectangular, symmetrical and immensely dignified, looming up in the dusk. When they trooped into the hall and up the front stairs they were abashed by the imposing portraits; they found themselves whispering. They followed large cardboard arrows painted in House colours and sorted themselves out into dormitories. Every available room upstairs was filled with beds, from the thirty ranged under the painted ceiling of the Salon to the six or seven in the smaller bedrooms. 1
Elizabeth’s bed was underneath the enormous Adam fireplace in the Salon, overshadowed by a very large statue of Hercules in marble. It was very scary in the moonlight! She remembers that in the beginning, Longleat was not on the main electricity grid, and had its own generator. The supply became weak in the afternoons and evenings. When the girls had lessons and prep the candles were lit down the dining room table. They sat round the table and the teachers read from text books as the pupils tried to write in semi-darkness.
Elizabeth was one of a team of girls who were fire fighters. “Sixteen girls were chosen for this task (I was one of them), who it was considered were not likely to become hysterical. When the ‘Green Alert’ went up in Bath, the two ARP wardens on the roof of the House rang a bell. The school all went down to the cellars except us, who had to stand at our fire stations in the various corridors in the House. We were in pairs and had a water cart and a stirrup pump, waiting for the bombs and the incendiary bombs! Although we had several ‘dog fights’ over the House and grounds fortunately there were no bombs.
“We had training sessions with the stirrup pumps and one day I hit the PE mistress (who was in charge of the firefighting gang) with the hose water. She was not amused and allocated me the spookiest area as my station. This was the south corridor at the top of the House, which was supposedly haunted. This was my punishment!”
Food was of course very important to growing girls and Vivienne vividly remembers what they were given! “Our main cooked meal was at lunch time and was eaten in one of the three dining rooms. I still remember the menu, which never changed! Sunday was a roast, Monday grated vegetables. On Tuesday we had shepherd’s pie and Wednesday was stew. I don’t remember Thursday, but Friday was fish and Saturday cold meat.
“Every day we had a pudding, usually treacle or currant. Each dining room also had an extra rice pudding. Unfortunately, there was only enough for one table, so your turn didn’t come around very often! Saturday tea was eaten in the cellars and we were served by the senior girls. We had bread and margarine with pilchards, followed by bread and treacle – all on the same plate!”
The arrival of the School also brought change for the village of Horningsham, as there were opportunities for employment, particularly women. Lionel Marsh and his mother both found work at the school. “I can remember singing in the church choir when the Royal School girls used to attend the church morning service in Horningsham. The church always seemed to be full of them. From what I can remember, they used to walk to and from church along the footpath from just above the Longleat Lodge gates, past the front of Mill Farm, and joined the main road above the almshouses.
“My mother used to work for the School. Most of the time she rode her bicycle, but sometimes she would walk there and back, along White St and across the Park. Sometimes she would carry home a fire wood limb on her head.
“I also worked at the School in the evenings. My job was to load the dirty crockery on to a four-wheeled trolley and to take it in the lift down to the washing up room. Here the women from the village used to load the crockery into metal containers which were then passed through a washing machine. Six school girls did the drying up. I then took the crockery back upstairs to the maids, who returned it to the dining rooms. I was paid 2s 6d for around two hours work each evening. I did this job until I was called up for National Service in August 1946.”
Lord Bath enjoyed sharing his home. Only a couple of months after the School’s arrival he wrote to the headmistress: “I am quite honest that I am enjoying every moment. It is twenty-five years since I had children running about the house. I have enjoyed my life even when alone, but I never realised how lonely I have been, and I love hearing the children all over the place – in fact I keep my door open on purpose.” When a girl celebrated her birthday, a slice of cake was always given to Lord Bath. It was therefore a huge shock when he died suddenly on 9th June 1946. For two days he lay in state in the Great Hall. The day of his funeral the girls in their blue capes with red-lined hoods formed a guard of honour on the steps while men from the Estate carried the cedar coffin down between their ranks.2
The Royal School remained at Longleat for another year, finally leaving on 30th July 1947. It was time to return home to Bath, leaving the 6th Marquess of Bath able to take full possession of his home.
Helen Taylor, Senior Community History Advisor
1 and 2. H Osborne, A History of the Royal School for Daughters of Officers of the Army 1864-1965.
History is fun, but it’s even more fun with archives which provide us with that tangible connection to fascinating stories of amazing people and places who have shaped our history.
And this year we have so many reasons, if reasons were needed, to go searching through the Wiltshire & Swindon Archive to see just how connected the county is to some of the major national commemorations that are taking place in 2020.
Already garnering national attention are the 800th birthday celebrations for Salisbury cathedral and the city of Salisbury. And Salisbury can also lay claim to ties with another 800th anniversary – that of the unveiling of the shrine to St Thomas Becket at Canterbury cathedral. This year is also the 850th anniversary of Becket’s murder.
In a busy year Wiltshire will also be marking the bicentenary of Florence Nightingale’s birth. Most people will know of her as ‘the lady with the lamp’ – a phrase and image made famous in her lifetime following her pioneering work during the Crimean War – but how many know of her connections to Wilton House and the Pembroke family?
Florence was born in Florence, Italy, on 12th May 1820 and named after the city of her birth. (Her older sister Frances Parthenope was named after her birthplace of Parthenope in Naples.) The family moved back to England in 1821 and Florence grew up at Embley Park in Hampshire, just 15 miles from Salisbury. She wanted to be a nurse from an early age and had hoped to take up the career at Salisbury Infirmary – then in Fisherton Street – but her family opposed the idea, believing nursing to be an inappropriate activity for a young woman of her social standing.
She spent much of her twenties travelling and it was in Rome, in November 1847, that she met Sidney Herbert, the younger son of the Earl of Pembroke, and so began a lifelong friendship that was to prove so important to her work.
In 1853 Florence began her nursing career as the superintendent of a women’s hospital in London but it was the outbreak of war in the Crimea in 1854, and reports of horrendous conditions endured by sick and injured soldiers, that propelled Florence into spotlight.
With the support of Sidney Herbert, the minister for war, Florence Nightingale led a group of nurses to the Crimea and so began her campaign to improve conditions at Scutari hospital. Her work, alongside the work of a government Sanitary Commission, transformed the survival rates for the soldiers treated at Scutari.
Accounts of her work in her own words and the words of others are held here at the Wiltshire & Swindon History Centre and form part of the Pembroke archive (WSA 2057). There are two series of correspondence and documents – 2057/F4 and 2057/F8 – which include letters sent by Florence to Sidney Herbert and others.
In a letter written from Scutari in January 1856 (WSA 2057/F4/64), Florence attempts to explain to “dear Mr Bracebridge” how she will use the money given to the newly established Nightingale Fund. “The people of England say to me by their subscriptions ‘We trust you, we wish you to do us a service’. No love or confidence can be shown to a human being greater than this – and as such I accept it gratefully…” She goes on to say: “And if I have a plan in me, which is not battered out by the constant ‘wear and tear’ of mind and body I am now undergoing, it would be simply this – to take the poorest and least organised hospital & putting myself in there, see what I could do…”. She concludes that she is “overwhelmed at present not with plans but work.” And adds that she wishes she could say “how much I feel the love & confidence of the people of England, in whose service I have lived, so I shall die.”
Florence’s work, and that of her nurses, had made headline news in Britain and the public began giving money for a gift honouring her efforts, but so much money was given that the Nightingale Fund was created, with her friend and support Sidney Herbert its honorary secretary.
Florence’s uncertainty about the details of what to do with the fund did not last long and in July 1860 the first school of nursing was opened at St Thomas’s Hospital in London. As well as transforming and professionalising the training of nurses, Florence also influenced the design of new hospitals, introducing the eponymous Nightingale Wards.
Following on from her work during the Crimean war, Florence campaigned for improved sanitary conditions at home and went on to work on improving conditions for the British army in India. Florence was an effective social reformer and campaigner, making the most of her friendship with Sidney Herbert and not afraid to use the media of the day. But she was also careful to support her work with evidence, especially statistics, and became the first woman elected to the Royal Statistical Society.
The Florence Nightingale letters in the Pembroke archive, and letters written by others about Florence’s work, are a fascinating insight into one of Britain’s most iconic Victorian figures and it is fitting that we mark the bicentenary of her birth on 12th May this year.
Stratford Tony is a small village 4 ½ miles from Salisbury. The river Ebble flows through it, and the line of the ancient Roman road known as ‘Icknield Street’ passes close on the west side of the village. The most notable occupant of Stratford Tony was the impressionist painter Wilfrid de Glehn, who lived at the Manor House from 1942 until his death in 1951. The population now only amounts to around 50 people.
Last year Wiltshire Buildings Record was asked to investigate the old rectory, now a private house. The house presented a decorous early Georgian front with views across the lawns to the river below. As ever, we looked beyond the polite elevation to the hidden corners and roof spaces to reveal a very different story. Remains of a c1500 timber-frame were found embedded in replacement stone walls and in the roof which suggested that this was a much more humble farmhouse. Grabbed by the intrigue glands, our researcher Louise did what she does best, which is to squirrel out those hidden facts embedded in layers of old parchment. It turns out that it was quite possibly a grange farm for the Abbey of Lyra in Normandy (nothing to do with His Dark Materials or the constellation of stars!) and then the Priory of Sheen in Richmond, London.
Its transformation to posh rectory happened in the later 16th century when Lawrence Hyde acquired the advowson (the right to recommend a clergyman to a ‘living’ in the parish) from the Crown in 1560. Lawrence Hyde was part of the influential Hyde family of Wiltshire, he had benefitted greatly from the acquisition of land and property following the Dissolution of the Monasteries. He held a lease from William Earl of Pembroke, of Wardour Castle and Park around the time he was granted the advowson at Stratford Tony. Members of the Hyde family held it for over 126 years up to 1686, when it then transferred to Edward Fawconer of Sarum.
By 1671 the glebe terrier noted a substantial rectory house comprising …A mansion house, a brew house, a wood house, a barn, a stable, a fodder house besides some skillings (cowsheds), an orchard, 2 gardens…. Lawrence and his son Robert Hyde installed three members of their own family as clerks at Stratford Tony. It is very likely, the patronage of the Hyde family resulted in substantial investment in the parsonage house, including the addition of a smart Georgian wing. This was extended further in 1791 by Reverend Stockwell, the rector at that time, who commemorated it with a datestone.
On Saturday 3 January 1920 the Sailsbury Journal reported on how the city had spent Christmas. "A return to the customs of pre-war days was observable over the Christmas holidays", the "streets were almost deserted on Christmas Day, which was, for the most part, devoted to family reunions".
The Infirmary: All the wards were very prettily decorated and in a more attractive manner than had been possible during the last few years. The Children’s Ward and Queensbury Ward were decorated to represent winter, a snowman in each of the wards, with holly and snow, being an outstanding feature. Large butterflies were included in the adornment of Atwood and Accident Wards, whilst Radnor Ward was prettily decorated with purple and white clematis.
The Workhouse: A thoroughly enjoyable time was spent by the inmates of Salisbury Union Workhouse during the Christmas thanks to many donors of gifts and the care of the Master and Matron (Mr. and Mrs. W.R. Clarke) and their assistants.
Fisherton House Asylum: On Christmas Day the patients and staff were entertained on a pre-war basis, the far consisting of roast beef, plum pudding, mince pies, fruit &c. During the day all the wards were visited by Sir Cecil Chubb (proprietor), the medieval superintendent and administrative staff, and games and dancing were provided.
Isolation Hospital: …the patients in the Salisbury and District Isolation Hospital, consisting principally of children, spent a bright and happy Christmas. They were provided with turkey and plum pudding for dinner on Christmas Day, had games during the afternoon, and after a tea party carols were sung. On the evening of Boxing-day an entertainment was given in the Scarlet Ward, including a play, “Cinderella”, which was much enjoyed, and afterwards “Father Christmas” distributed gifts from the Christmas-tree.